Transparency denotes the principle that public officials, civil servants, managers and directors of companies and organizations have a duty to act visibly, predictably and understandably to promote participation and accountability; while accountability ensures that officials are answerable for their actions and that there is redress for failure to meet obligations (Bendell, 2006; TAI, 2017). Transparency enables governments and extractives companies to identify gaps and deal with potential corruption risks (OECD, 2015). It promotes accountability and good governance by ensuring that all stakeholders take responsibility for ensuring delivery of services due from the industry. This may be through disseminating information to help citizens understand how key decisions in the public interest are arrived at (Extractives Baraza, 2017).
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