International Instrument

International Instrument (Conventions/Treaties) Subject Date & Place Of Adoption Overview & Application Links

Convention Concerning Statistics Of Wages And Hours Of Work, 1938

International Labor Organization

June 20th 1938, Switzerland

The treaty serves to supplement domestic laws addressing the laborers in the extractives industry. The treaty regulates the wages, hours and working conditions of laborers in the extractives industry.

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Safety And Health In Mines Convention, 1995

International Labor Organization

June 22nd 1995, Geneva Switzerland

The treaty spells out preventive measures and protection to be afforded to persons, particularly miners at the mines

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Bilateral Treaty between Kenya and Ethiopia (not yet in force)

Memorandum of understanding on the construction of an oil and gas pipeline

Signed in Nairobi on the 23rd June 2016

The two countries will construct a crude oil pipeline that will run from the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa to the Kenyan coastal town of Lamu. The pipeline is part of the Lamu Port-Southern Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor project, which runs through the two countries and aims to transform infrastructure of the two countries.

Not Yet Available

Bilateral Treaty between Kenya and the Islamic Republic Iran (not yet in force)

Memorandum of understanding on the import of oil and gas among other things to Kenya

Signed in Nairobi on the 24/02/2009

The two countries seek to cooperate in the development of oil and gas infrastructure and the importation of the same.

Not Yet Available

Bilateral Treaty between Kenya and Kuwait (not yet in force)

Memorandum of understanding on the import of oil and gas among other things to Kenya

Signed in Nairobi on the 12/11/2013

The two countries seek to cooperate in the development of oil and gas infrastructure and importation of the same.

Not Yet Available

The Convention of the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region or Nairobi Convention of 1985

marine environmental management

Signed in Nairobi in 1985

This is a regional framework agreement for marine environmental management. Countries seek to cooperate in the protection, preservation and management of marine life and resources.

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The Bamako Convention (in full: Bamako Convention on the ban on the Import into Africa and the Control of trans boundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa)

Management of Hazardous Wastes

Signed in Bamako, Mali on the 30th of January 1991 and came into force in 1998.

This is a treaty of African nations prohibiting the import of any hazardous (including radioactive) waste. The Convention was negotiated by twelve nations of the Organization of African Unity at Bamako, Mali in January, 1991

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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Bio diversity

Signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on the 5th of June  1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. The Convention has three main goals:

  • conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);
  • sustainable use of its components; and
  • fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources

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The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, commonly called the "London Convention" or "LC '72"

Prevention of Marine Pollution

Signed in London on the 13th of  November 1972

The Convention, is an agreement to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention. It covers the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, and platforms.

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Kyoto Protocol

Reduction of greenhouse gasses

Signed in Kyoto on the 11th of December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.

It is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that;

  1. global warming exists and
  2. Human-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Ozone Layer

Signed and agreed in Montreal, Canada on 26 August 1987, and entered into force on 26 August 1989

This is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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The Paris Agreement

Greenhouse gases, the environment

Signed and Agreed in Paris France on the 5 October 2016,

It is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020.

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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

Ozone Layer and the Environment

It was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988.

The treaty, serves as a guide and a commitment by signatories on reduction of emissions. The extractives industry is a major cause of emissions and therefore very important to the industry. It is a multilateral environmental agreement. It was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988. It acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion. These are laid out in the accompanying Montreal Protocol.

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Basel Convention on the Control of Trans boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

Designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs).

Opened for signature on 31 April 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992 in Basel.

This is an international treaty designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.

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International convention for the prevention of pollution of the sea by oil, 1954

Environment, The sea

The original text of the Convention, which was done by the International Conference on Pollution of the Sea by Oil in London on 12 May 1954, entered into force on 26 July 1958, was later modified by Amendments adopted by the International Conference on Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1962; these Amendments entered into force on 18 May and 28 June 1967. The Convention was further modified by Amendments adopted by the sixth Assembly of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization on 21 October 1969 (Resolution A. 175 (Vl)); these Amendments entered into force on 20 January 1978.

This is a convention aimed at protecting the sea. The Governments represented at the International Conference on Pollution of the Sea by Oil held in London from 26 April 1954 to 12 May 1954 expressed their intent to end pollution of the seas. Desiring to take action by common agreement to prevent pollution of the sea by oil discharged from ships, they decided to come up with this convention and appended their signatures.

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Convention on the protection, management and development of the marine, coastal environment of the East African region, 1985 (The Nairobi Convention)

Marine and coastal environment

The Convention was created on June 21, 1985. The original resolution was put into effect in on May 30, 1996, but was amended on March 31, 2010 in Nairobi. The amendments, have not yet entered enforcement.

The goal of the convention is fostering cooperation between governments, NGOs, and the private sector within Southern Africa to prevent further degradation of the marine environment of the West Indian Ocean. The Convention first met in accordance with U.N. Resolution 2997 in an attempt to create a more comprehensive and informed environmental policy for the region. The major goals of The Convention were to foster economic growth and development while at the same time minimizing negative environmental impact. The amendments, were designed to improve the framework of the original convention and allow the Convention to have a greater, more unified impact on the environmental policies of the participating nations. Currently the Convention meets every two years in Nairobi, Kenya.

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Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

Environment, bio-diversity

It was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.

Also known as the Biodiversity Convention, it is a multilateral treaty with  three main goals:

  1. conservation of biological diversity;
  2. sustainable use of its components; and
  3. fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources

In other words, its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development.

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The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969

Marine environment.

Open for signatures on the, 29th November 1969 at Brussels and renewed in renewed in 1992

This is an international maritime treaty that was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation would be available where oil pollution damage was caused by maritime casualties involving oil tankers. The convention introduces strict liability for ship-owners.

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International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties 1969 (INTERVENTION 1969)

Oil and marine environment

Adopted in Brussels, Belgium on 29 Nov 1969

This is an international maritime convention affirming the right of a coastal State to "take such measures on the high seas as may be necessary to prevent, mitigate or eliminate grave and imminent danger to their coastline or related interests from pollution or threat of pollution of the sea by oil, following upon a maritime casualty or acts related to such a casualty"

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International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND)

Oil and the environment.

Adoption: 18th  December 1971; Entry into force: 16 October 1978; superseded by 1992 Protocol: Adoption: 27 November 1992; Entry into force: 30 May 1996 in Brussels

This is an international maritime treaty. The fund is obliged to pay victims of pollution when damages exceed the ship owner’s liability, when there is no liable ship-owner, or when the ship-owner is unable to pay its liability. The fund is also required to "indemnify the ship-owner or his insurer" in spills where a ship is in full compliance with international conventions, and no wilful misconduct caused the spill.

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International convention on oil pollution preparedness, response and co-operation, 1990

Oil and the environment

Date of adoption: 30th  November 1990; Date of entry into force: 13th  May 1995 in London

This is an international maritime convention establishing measures for dealing with marine oil pollution incidents nationally and in co-operation with other countries

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Resolution on the Niamey Declaration on Ensuring the Upholding of the African Charter in the Extractive Industries Sector

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

Done in Niamey, Republic of Niger, on 22 May 2017

This is a resolution by the African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights. The main aim of the resolution is to ensure the upholding of the African Charter in the Extractives Industries Sector

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